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一、对比表转折:Alternatively、Nevertheless、Reciprocally、In contrast、nonetheless、conversely、Whereas

1. Alternatively(adv)另一方面、或者

例句:The fronto-central N2 may be relatively insensitive to such transfer effects. Alternatively, conflict adaptation effects on the fronto-central N2 may have been obscured by the introduction of a second spatial dimension.


2. Nevertheless(adv)然而、不过,虽然如此

例句:Schizophrenia is a complex and heritable disorder. Nevertheless, molecular genetics of schizophrenia remains inconclusive.


3. Reciprocally(adv)相反的

例句:They (microorganisms) biotransform food components and produce metabolites, which in combination with food components shape and modulate the host immune system and metabolic responses. Reciprocally, the diet modulates the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiota, which …..


4. In contrast,相比之下,与此相反

例句:The ability of platelets to promote carcinoma and melanoma progression has been thoroughly studied and occurs in numerous ways. In contrast, the effect of platelets on sarcomas, tumors arising from mesenchymal cells, has received very little attention.


5. Nonetheless(adv)尽管如此、但是、然而

例句:The management of advanced-stage renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been transformed by the development of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Nonetheless, most patients do not derive durable clinical benefit from these agents.


6. Conversely(adv)然而、相反的

例句:Here we show that deficiency in NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) impairs glycolysis induction, rendering CD8+ effector T cells hypofunctional in the tumor microenvironment. Conversely, ectopic expression of NIK promotes CD8+ T cell metabolism and effector function.

本研究发现,NF-κ b诱导激酶(NIK)的缺失会破坏糖酵解诱导,导致CD8+效应T细胞在肿瘤微环境中的功能下降。相反,NIK的异位表达促进CD8+ T细胞的代谢和效应功能。

7. Whereas(conj)然而、但是

例句:FGF21 (fibroblast growth factor 21) has been found to regulate various pulmonary diseases, whereas, the role and mechanism of FGF21 in lung cancer remain unclear. FGF21(成纤维细胞生长因子21)已被发现可以调节多种肺部疾病,但FGF21在肺癌中的作用和机制尚不清楚。


1. Particularly(adv)特别的、尤其

例句:…… revealed homogeneous distribution of CD38 molecules on the cell membrane. Particularly important is that combining ricolinostat with daratumumab induced enhanced lysis of MM cells.


2. Notably(adv)显著地、尤其

例句:Gastric cancer is one of the most common types of cancer; notably, gastric cancer is one of the top five malignancies with regards to incidence and mortality rates.



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